Rock formations have oil and gas trapped in its rock layers. These are natural oils and gas that comes in large quantity but difficult to harness since it has poor flow or permeability. These natural oils and gas are found in large rock formations and coal formation or deep shale formation below the ground and its potential is massive. It has the ability to reduce the foreign import of oils from other countries. Since the oil and gas are trapped in the layers of shale and coals, it cannot be harnessed through the methods used in the typical oil extraction bunkers but with a different approach, a technology called Hydraulic Fracturing is currently the best method used in harboring these natural fuel and hydraulic fracturing is currently implemented in the U.S.

Hydraulic Fracturing or fracking is a proven method of extracting oil and gas by drilling and creating rock fractures in order for the oil and gas to travel to the fractures and into the well where the oil and gas will be collected. Usually, in order to create fractures, a mixture of water and sands or ceramic beads will be used to create fractures which is natural and can be compared to a natural occurrence in the environment but fracturing requires a mixture of chemicals and involves pumping acids like hydrochloric acid to dissolve coal and shale formation which is disastrous to environment.

In U.S., Hydraulic Fracturing is implemented and is considered a great alternative for finding fuel and increasing the source of gas supply. In Pennsylvania, fracking industry is growing rapidly despite complains from homeowners and reports of contamination of water supplies such as deep well and faucet water. Research shows that fracking is affecting local wells, 60 wells had been reported to be exposed to gas and oils in areas one kilometer away from the natural gas well.

“Methane concentrations in drinking water were much higher if the homeowner was near an active gas well,” explains environmental scientist Robert Jackson of Duke University.

“I saw a homeowner light his water on fire,” Jackson notes. “The biggest risk is flammability and explosion.”

Just this month, the U.S. Department of Energy has ordered  a team to monitor the contamination caused by Hydraulic Fracturing in Marcellus Shale, a rich rock and coal formation in Pennsylvania.

“America’s vast natural gas resources can generate many new jobs and provide significant environmental benefits,” noted Secretary of Energy Steven Chu in a prepared statement announcing the panel, “but we need to ensure that we harness these resources safely.”

There anti Fracking or Hydraulic Fracturing campaigns immersed in the States after the discovery of its effect. Actor and Director Mark Ruffalo is one of its advocates.